Hæmmere og fremmere for udvikling i Folkeskolen

Test skaber læring for at opnå gode karakterer. Det fører til brug af sikre og prøvede undervisningsmetoder - det, man ved, virker. Derfor er det svært at få gang i arbejdet med nye undervisnings – og læringsformer. Men de kompetencer, der skal til i fremtiden, kan næppe måles med gårsdagens evalueringsmetoder. Vi skal give vores elever lyst til at eksperimentere. De skal lære at tåle at lave fejl, lære at nogle måske ser skævt til dem, når det går galt, skriver skoleleder Peter Gottlieb i Folkeskole-stafetten.

Af Skoleleder Peter Gottlieb, Trørødskolen, Rudersdal Kommune

Peter Ulhom skriver, at vi mangler en grundlæggende afklaring af, hvad der er folkeskolens opgave i udvikling af fremtidens velfærdssamfund og videre, at den aktuelle styringslogik ikke ligefrem er fremmende for, at der bliver arbejdet eksperimenterende og innovativt med folkeskolen.

Han er også inde på, at den megen tale om ranking og måling på diverse internationale skalaer er med til at flytte fokus væk fra et dannelsesaspekt og til en større vægtning på de direkte udannelsesmæssige kvalifikationer.

Når man prøver at se på, hvad det er for elementer, der har indflydelse på skolens og hermed medarbejdernes lyst til at arbejde innovativt, kan der peges på flere forhold.

Test og kompetencer

For det første er det sådan i dag, at skolens afgangsprøveresultater bliver lagt på indenrigsministeriets hjemmeside, og bruges til at rangordne skolerne, ligesom resultaterne er en del af den årlige skoleredegørelse. Der laves også nationale test, som ganske vist endnu ikke skal offentliggøres, men hvor debatten om dette er stadigt kørende.

Da der ikke findes så mange andre ”hårde” fakta om skolen, bliver det til, at netop disse resultater betragtes som sigende noget om kvaliteten i den enkelte skole. Det gør de selvfølgelig også. Men spørgsmålet er, om sådanne bagudrettede og ganske konservative prøvemetoder fortæller noget om det, der her er i fokus, nemlig udviklingen af elevernes kompetence i forhold til en videreudvikling af samfundet.

For den enkelte skole vil der være flere interessenter, som vil lægge vægt på prøve – og testresultater. Det gælder forældre generelt og i skolebestyrelsen, og det gælder politikere og forvaltning.

Selvom det ofte understreges, at det skam ikke er disse resultater, der betyder noget særligt, ligger der en opfattelse hos medarbejderne om, at det også er en bedømmelse af deres indsats, hvordan eleverne klarer sig til afgangsprøven.

Erfaringer fra rigtigt mange steder i den vestlige verden viser, at der kan være en tilbøjelighed til ”teaching to the test”, som i hvert fald ikke fremmer nytænkning og innovation. Man gør det sikre.

Giver tests fra i går plads til fiaskoer i morgen?

Ivan Sørensen, som var ansat i undervisningsministeriet, fremsatte ofte det synspunkt, at skulle man ændre på folkeskolen, skulle man bare ændre på prøveformerne, så kom det helt af sig selv. Erfaringerne i firserne med ændringer af prøverne i fysik og matematik tyder meget på, at han har ret. Projektarbejdsformen udvikles til stadighed efter at projektprøven blev indført, og man har fx kunnet se, hvordan stavetræning i hele skoleforløbet i høj grad har benyttet ordudfyldningsdiktater som træningsmateriale, fordi prøven var en sådan. Der er masser af eksempler, både med en positiv og mere uheldig effekt.

Fra brainstorm til trystorm

Det springende punkt er imidlertid, at de kompetencer, der skal til i fremtiden næppe kan måles med gårsdagens evalueringsmetoder. På et møde for nylig hørte jeg en amerikaner fra Harvard Business School udtale, at han så det som en stor udfordring for Danmark, at man lærer at turde noget mere. Lave eksperimenter med uundgåelige fiaskoer som følge, sådan som også Peter Ulholm er inde på.

Han mener, at danskerne er rigtig gode til brainstorm, men at det, der kræves i fremtiden, snarere er noget, man kan kalde ”trystorm”. Vi skal give vores elever og senere samfundsborgere lyst til at eksperimentere. De skal lære at tåle at lave fejl, lære at nogle måske ser skævt til dem, når det går galt. Samtidigt skal de lære at udvikle ting i samarbejde. De relationelle kompetencer bliver afgørende i fremtidens samfund.

Her er man gået den anden vej med hensyn til prøverne. Gruppe og fællesprøver blev afskaffet i jagten på at kunne måle den enkeltes evne til at gå til prøver og eksaminer, for det er jo reelt det, man måler. Når det nok er rigtigt, at netop eksamens- og prøveformer styrer undervisningen, har man her taget et skridt i den gale retning.

Nye læringsformer har det svært

Når Peter Ulholm derfor spørger til forholdet mellem innovation og tryghed ”på gulvet”, må man konstatere, at respekten for prøver og test og lærernes ønske om at forberede eleverne så godt som muligt til disse med henblik på at opnå gode karakterer, ofte fører til brug af sikre og prøvede undervisningsmetoder, - det, man ved, virker. Det betyder også, at det kan være rigtigt svært at få gang i arbejdet med nye undervisnings – og læringsformer, som måske i virkeligheden ville være endnu mere effektive også i relation til at opnå gode prøveresultater.

Det klassiske eksempel er fra amerikansk forskning, hvor to store elevgrupper (mere end 5000 i hver) blev undervist i det samme timetal i en længere periode. Den ene gruppe hvor alle timerne var matematik, den anden gruppe hvor halvdelen af timerne var matematik, den anden halvdel musik. Forskerne havde en opfattelse af, at musikken ville være god til at udvikle eleverne også med hensyn til matematik. Det viste sig, at teorien holdt stik. Eleverne, der havde haft både matematik og musik, var efter perioden dygtigere til matematik, end de andre elever, samtidigt med at de havde fået udviklet deres musikalske kunnen.

Lærernes vilje og mod holdes nede

Man skulle nu tro, at man kunne indføre sådanne ordninger overalt, men det kan man ikke. Her kommer der endnu en dimension ind. Det opfattes nemlig som et udtryk for fagets vigtighed, at faget tildeles et højt timetal. Vi oplever i hverdagen, at denne logik er til stede både hos forældrene og hos medarbejderne. Der er ikke megen tilbøjelighed til, at flytte tid fra fx traditionel dansk - og matematikundervisning til praktisk/musisk/kreative fag, selvom det kan godtgøres, at det vil have en positiv effekt på alle fagene.

Endnu et aspekt i spørgsmålet om tryghed ligger i den offentlige debat om folkeskolen. Selv om der i den senere tid er sket en drejning i debatten, væk fra bar kritik og i retning af netop fokus på folkeskolen som kulturbærende institution, er der stadig vældig megen kritik af skolens virke. Det er et vilkår, vi deler både med mange andre offentlige områder og såmænd også med mange private. Men det er med til, at den enkelte medarbejder måske ikke har så megen lyst til at stikke næsen frem.

Når landets ene statsminister først taler om pjankede medarbejdere, der bare sidder i rundkreds og spørger, hvad synes du selv, og en anden senere prøver at profilere sig på, at nu går vi til stålet og giver folkeskolen et nødvendigt og tiltrængt 360 graders eftersyn, kan man måske godt forstå, at en 26 årig lidt forsigtig medarbejder på min skole i Trørød ikke har lyst til at fortælle forældrene om, hvordan hun i morgen har tænkt sig at starte et læringsforløb for deres børn, hvis virkning hun endnu ikke kender, men som hun håber vil føre til udvikling af børnenes innovative kompetencer.

Vi skal styrke lysten til innovation

Når alt dette er sagt, er det en stor glæde at konstatere, at medarbejderne på Trørødskolen har rigtig megen lyst til udvikling. De søger kurser, som kvalificerer dem til at blive endnu bedre til netop at skabe innovative miljøer, og de arbejder med mange forskellige former for udvikling af egen praksis. De har lysten til at skabe innovation. Den store udfordring for skoleledelse og forvaltning er at understøtte denne proces. Det kan blandt andet gøres ved at udvikle evalueringsformer, der er mindre konservative og i højere grad måler det, vi prøver at udvikle, end de traditionelle former, vi kender i dag, gør det.

Stafetten sendes til Morten Klim Due

Jeg sender stafetten videre til Morten Klim Due, som er udviklingschef i Rudersdal Kommune, og i mange år har arbejdet netop med evaluering.

Emneord: Folkeskole, Skoleleder, Nationale tests, Innovation, Rangordning, Kreativitet, Lærere
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